Glucosamine is the main molecule responsible for ensuring good joint recovery, because it accelerates the body's ability to produce glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid.
Glucosamine is a precursor of GAGs, the second most important component of cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, after collagen. Our body naturally produces its glucosamine from sugar and an amino acid: glutamine.
Glucosamine is the main molecule responsible for ensuring good joint recovery, because it accelerates the body's ability to produce glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid.
Acceleration of the joint recovery process
N-acetylglucosamine accelerates cartilage anabolism and therefore joint recovery. Research shows that N-acetylglucosamine increases the rate of cartilage regeneration by 40%.
By ensuring elasticity and hydration, N-acetylglucosamine acts as an anti-wrinkle agent, as wrinkles are caused by skin dryness and a lack of elasticity.
For further details on the benefits of N-acetylglucosamine, visit the Find out more section.
Nutritional values per 100 g
- protein : 0,2g
- Carbohydrates : 99,6g
- Fat: 0g
- Calories : 399 kcal
- Natural N-acetylglucosamine.
- Natural N-acetylglucosamine
- Beef gelatin capsule.
Not all forms of N-acetylglucosamine are created equal, as there are several methods of extracting this molecule from the shell of crustaceans (14).
The oldest methods leaving residues of chemical materials, they do not produce an N-acetylglucosamine considered natural. Its taste is made acidic due to these residues.
Although it is more expensive than glucosamine sulfate, N-acetylglucosamine dominates other forms of glucosamine in six major ways:
- A much greater joint regeneration effect
- Much better absorption
- A well-established non-toxicity
- Ease of use due to its pleasant taste
- A natural extraction process
- The reliability and the traceability of a natural molecule obtained by a "soft" process against Chinese generic products.
Thanks to a “soft” process, the Japanese firm Kaneka Pharma © produces an N-acetylglucosamine by enzymatic hydrolysis of crab and shrimp shells: Hyalurogluco® (15).
Hyalurogluco® is the least allergenic form of glucosamine, as tropomyosin, which is the main seafood allergen, is not detected. Tropomyosin has been purposely eliminated from Hyalurogluco® in order to reduce the risks of allergy in people who have it.
This is a unique modality among all the different forms of glucosamine, which all come from the same raw material: the shells of crustaceans. Hyalurogluco® can therefore be used by patients with Crohn's disease or other related digestive disorders, including children, to reduce their symptoms (13).
|100 g||1 capsule||500 mg|
|Proteins||0,2 g||1 mg||1 mg|
|Carbohydrates||99,6 g||498 mg||498 mg|
|Fat||0 g||0 mg||0 mg|
|Calories||399 kcal||2 kcal||2 kcal|
|Energy||1669 kJ||8,3 kJ||8,3 kJ|
- 1 g (gram) = 1000 mg (milligram)
- 1 capsule contains 500 mg of natural N-acetylglucosamine. -
Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine is for:
- Athletes who wish to prevent injuries, especially those who practice strength-based sports including power lifting or bodybuilding, because heavy loads and repetitive movements damage their joints. Athletes practising high-impact sports such as mountain biking or running also strain their joints and can benefit from supplementation with Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine.
- Less active people who suffer from joint pain.
- For joint benefits: a dosage of 500 mg (1 capsule) per day is recommended
- For intestinal benefits: one dose of 1g (2 capsules) three to five times a day is recommended
- For skin and wrinkle benefits: two doses of 500 mg (2 x 1 capsule) per day is recommended
N-acetylglucosamine is best taken with a meal (morning, noon, or evening) or a protein snack.
Absorption is fastest when Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine is taken orally, with a peak occurring 30 minutes to 1 hour after consumption.
Six hours later, the elevation falls but is still significant, suggesting that it is still better to take one dose in the morning + another in the evening to induce a more constant rise over 24 hours.
By taking N-acetylglucosamine directly, the level of this GAG precursor in the joints is immediately increased.
Many athletes start worrying about their joints once the pain has already set in.
However, the main effects of Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine cannot be seen instantly. They appear after several weeks of regular use, although the rapid anti-inflammatory effects of Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine can alleviate pain to a certain extent.
Prevention is better than cure: take care of your joints before the problems start. Use Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine as a preventive supplement to avoid damage and pain by optimising lubrication and joint regeneration.
Your consumption of Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine should be done in relation to the extent of your training; continue use for as long as your joints are under pressure. Hence, we don't recommend occasional random use.
Synergies between supplements
No known immediate synergies.
Adverse reactions between supplements
No known negative interactions with other supplements.
Find out more
If you're on a budget and can only choose one, we recommend Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine over all other supplements. However, it would be better to combine if possible.
It has long been debated whether glucosamine and chondroitin have exactly the same effects. If that were the case, it would be pointless to take them both.
But recent genetic research has shown that glucosamine and chondroitin function differently in the joints and actually complement each other. A synergy is therefore created between these two joint protectors, which is why it is preferable to use them together rather than separately (39-40-41).
Pharmacoproteomics is a science that analyses the influence of a molecule (food supplement, medication, etc.) on our genes in order to determine its functioning and predict its possible side effects.
Subjects were given glucosamine, chondroitin, or both. The activity of their genes in joint cartilage was measured before and after consumption. The activity of more than 30 genes is modified by either glucosamine or chondroitin (42).
Some see their activity increase, such as those responsible for cartilage repair; others see their activity decrease, such as those responsible for cartilage destruction.
So, we can conclude that:
N-acetylglucosamine essentially promotes cartilage repair while slightly reducing catabolism. Chondroitin mainly reduces cartilage catabolism while slightly stimulating its regeneration.
The two supplements thus work hand in hand: N-acetylglucosamine has an anabolic effect, while chondroitin has an anti-catabolic effect. But the study goes further by showing that certain genes are only activated by glucosamine +. chondroitin, but not with only one of the two supplements, which proves the synergy between these two molecules; each one complementing the other (42). This is what the following study shows. Over a 24-week period, patients with knee problems received one of the following:
1.2 g chondroitin sulphate; 1.5 g glucosamine; 1.2 g chondroitin + 1.5 g glucosamine (43).
Among those who suffered the most, the pain decreased for:
48% of patients taking a placebo; 58% of patients on chondroitin; 66% of patients on glucosamine; 75% of patients on chondroitin + glucosamine.
The results of other medical studies also demonstrate the complementary nature of chondroitin and glucosamine with omega 3 (44). Glucosamine works mainly on repair genes, while chondroitin is responsible for providing the energy to these repair genes, while slowing down those that accelerate cartilage destruction (48).
In a test tube, glucosamine is mainly able to inhibit the degradation of existing joint cartilage and acts as a natural anti-inflammatory. It promotes lubrication and joint "nutrition" by stimulating the production of hyaluronic acid. There are several forms of glucosamine: glucosamine sulphate, glucosamine hydrochloride, N-acetylglucosamine. Which is the best?
The most popular form of glucosamine is undoubtedly glucosamine sulphate, because it has the great advantage of being cheap and easy to obtain. But is it the most effective form of glucosamine for the joints? If you consider that being able to effectively preserve your joints should take precedence over all other considerations and if you are looking for the best, you should turn to a more sophisticated form of glucosamine: N-acetylglucosamine Nutrimuscle.
Several scientific studies have specifically evaluated the potential toxicity of N-acetylglucosamine. They show that even at very high doses, N-acetylglucosamine is not toxic or carcinogenic (12-13).
Joint regeneration effect
As we have just seen, classic glucosamines are mainly effective in slowing down the processes of joint degeneration. However, what sportsmen and women are looking for above all is not a reduction in the rate of joint degeneration, but a supplement that accelerates the regeneration of cartilage, and therefore joint anabolism, in order to recover more quickly between two training sessions.
In this respect, research has shown that glucosamine sulphate and glucosamine hydrochlorate are both good inhibitors of joint catabolism (1). Unfortunately, they also reduce anabolism, i.e. joint repair (1). This is a background action, as both forms of glucosamine inhibit the activity of the genes responsible for cartilage cell synthesis (2).
Of all the glucosamines, only N-acetylglucosamine is capable of accelerating cartilage anabolism and thus joint recovery (1-3-4-5-6-7-8). Research shows that N-acetylglucosamine increases the speed of cartilage regeneration by 40%, whereas other glucosamines slow down anabolism (1).
This is a major advantage, especially for sportsmen and women who are looking for regeneration rather than inhibition of degradation. However, like other glucosamines, N-acetylglucosamine also has an anti-inflammatory effect that is beneficial to joint health and integrity (5-9).
What makes N-acetylglucosamine superior to other forms of glucosamine is that N-acetylglucosamine is the direct precursor of glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. Conventional glucosamines are only indirect precursors that must first be converted to N-acetylglucosamine before they can be used as raw material for GAGs and hyaluronic acid. This conversion is very limiting and explains why N-acetylglucosamine is more effective than glucosamine.
N-acetylglucosamine Nutrimuscle is therefore not only important in the joints. N-acetylglucosamine Nutrimuscle also has vital functions for the skin. By providing elasticity and moisture, N-acetylglucosamine Nutrimuscle acts as an anti-wrinkle agent, as wrinkles are caused by dryness and lack of elasticity of the skin.
For example, for 60 days, women were given 1 g of N-acetylglucosamine orally every day. Their skin became less oily, but had much better hydration, resulting in a visual improvement in the appearance of the face (19).
The reduction in the oily appearance of the skin as well as the improved hydration suggests that N-acetylglucosamine may also help to cleanse the skin of impurities and thus combat acne. It can also help with wound healing, excessive flaking and sun damage to the skin (20-21-22).
N-acetylglucosamine also offers protection against brain degeneration (23).
In the world of sport, glucosamine was first used on a large scale on racehorses. From there, its use spread to humans. If glucosamine reduces the joint degeneration associated with ageing, why not use it to protect cartilage that has been damaged by the considerable repetition of sporting activities? In a study conducted over 28 days, high-level athletes with knee problems were given either:
A placebo ;
1.5 g of glucosamine.
Recovery of knee range of motion was 40% faster with glucosamine than with placebo.
Recently, Yoshimura (5) accurately studied the impact of intense sports practice on the cartilage of experienced football players who trained for 2 hours, six times a week. Compared to sedentary men of the same age, the footballers had :
A level of joint cell degradation that is increased by 300%;
A joint regeneration rate that increases by only 43%;
A catabolism/anabolism ratio that is twice as high as normal.
Ideally, this ratio should be zero, indicating a perfectly regenerating joint. In sedentary people, it is 0.067, which corresponds to a very slow degeneration trend. In footballers, it is 0.135, which brings it to the same level as that of 75-year-old patients suffering from osteoarthritis.
The turnover of joint cells is therefore greatly accelerated in sportsmen and women and a reconstruction deficit is clearly apparent. In the long run, it is normal for pain to appear.
Once these foundations had been laid, Yoshimura gave these footballers glucosamine for three months:
The first group received 1.5 g of glucosamine in the evening;
A second group received 1.5 g glucosamine in the morning + 1.5 g in the evening.
After 3 months of daily intake, the catabolism/anabolism ratio decreased by approximately 15% with 1.5 g of glucosamine and 25% with 3 g of glucosamine. These improvements are explained by a reduction in the extent of joint catabolism, not by an acceleration of joint regeneration. As we would expect, when glucosamine is discontinued, the level of cartilage degradation returns to pre-supplementation levels.
In this study, it is noticeable that the effectiveness of glucosamine slowly increases over the weeks. Over the 3 months of the study, the benefits of the supplementation do not seem to stagnate over time. This argues in favour of long-term use rather than short courses of treatment.
With sedentary people
A sedentary person already has difficulty meeting his or her glucosamine requirements, which explains why, in the long term, the joints slowly deteriorate: osteoarthritis develops, causing pain and limiting mobility.
Regular intake of glucosamine delays the progression of osteoarthritis (2). It also reduces the pain associated with osteoarthritis, while facilitating joint mobility (2). And, unlike painkillers, glucosamine does not cause more side effects than a placebo.
In a three-year study of two hundred patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, the effectiveness of 1500 mg glucosamine was compared with a placebo (3). Glucosamine reduced the level of pain and improved mobility by 24%, whereas placebo caused a 9% deterioration. Parameters such as the size of the joint space were also measured. The thinner the space, the more degenerated the joint and cartilage.
The bone ends up rubbing against the joint. With the placebo, this space was reduced by an average of 0.31 mm over a period of three years, whereas it was stable in the glucosamine group. These differences show that glucosamine has a fundamental effect on the cartilage and does not merely reduce pain.
Long-term side effects
The drugs used to treat joint pain (synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs) have many harmful side effects. What about natural "joint" supplements like Nutrimuscle N-acetylglucosamine and Nutrimuscle chondroitin sulphate?
Fortunately, their safety is considered excellent, both in the short and long term (33). Chondroitin treatment for 6 consecutive months does not induce any side effects in users (32). A long-term medical analysis measured the impact on health of glucosamine and chondroitin (used alone or in combination) over 6 to 8 years. More than 77,000 patients aged between 50 and 76 years at the start of the study were surveyed.
Those who used glucosamine and chondroitin regularly were significantly less likely to die than others (34).
Glucosamine reduced the risk of death by 18%, while chondroitin reduced it by 14%. Glucosamine is particularly effective in reducing the risk of death from cancer and respiratory diseases (34-35).
In addition to improved mobility, which is a factor in longevity because it allows people to remain more active and therefore healthier, glucosamine and chondroitin have anti-inflammatory effects that could be beneficial to general health in addition to that of the joints. By increasing longevity in the long term, glucosamine and chondroitin have proven to be safe for health, which answers questions about their long-term side effects.
- (1) Kessler M.A. Volume changes in the menisci and articular cartilage of runners : an in vivo investigation based on 3-D magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Sports Med. 2006 May ; 34(5):832-6.
- (2) Poolsup N., et al. Glucosamine long-term treatment and the progression of knee osteoarthritis : systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Jun ; 39(6):1080-7.
- (3) Reginster J.Y. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression : a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2001 Jan 27 ; 357 : 251-56.
- (4) Ostojic SM. Glucosamine administration in athletes: effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Res Sports Med. 2007 Apr-Jun;15(2):113-24.
- (5) Yoshimura M. Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine administration on biomarkers for cartilage and bone metabolism in soccer players. Int J Mol Med. 2009 Oct;24(4):487-94.
- (6) Shmidt EI. [Long-term efficacy and safety of chondroitin sulphate (structum, France) in patients with coxarthrosis]. Ter Arkh. 2007;79(1):65-7.
- (7) Vangsness CT Jr. A review of evidence-based medicine for glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate use in knee osteoarthritis. Arthroscopy. 2009 Jan;25(1):86-94.
- (8) Bell GA. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin in relation to mortality. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]
- (9) Brasky TM. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin and lung cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Sep;22(9):1333-42. Epub 2011 Jun 25.
- (10) Zhang YX. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease. Clin Rheumatol. 2010 Apr;29(4):357-62.
- (11) Tat SK. Chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate in combination decrease the pro-resorptive properties of human osteoarthritis subchondral bone osteoblasts: a basic science study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(6):R117.
- (12) Lippiello L. Collagen Synthesis in tenocytes, ligament cells and chondrocytes exposed to a combination of Glucosamine HCl and chondroitin sulfate. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Jun;4(2):219-24.
- (13) Calamia V. Pharmacoproteomic study of the effects of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate on human articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010, 12:R138 ;
- (14) Clegg DO.Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):795-808.
- (15) Jerosch J. Effects of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate on Cartilage Metabolism in OA: Outlook on Other Nutrient Partners Especially Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Int J Rheumatol. 2011; 2011: 969012.
- (16) Calamia V. Secretome analysis of chondroitin sulfate-treated chondrocytes reveals its anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic properties. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012, 14:R202.
- (17) Burton AF. Decreased incorporation of 14C-glucosamine relative to 3H-N-acétyl-glucosamine in the intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1983 Jan;78(1):19-22.
- (18) Goodman MJ. Glucosamine synthetase activity of the colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Gut, 1977, 18, 219-229
- (19) Auricchio S. Mannan and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine protect intestinal mucosa of celiac patients with active disease from in vitro toxicity of gliadin peptides. Gastroenterology. 1990 Oct;99(4):973-8.
- (20) Rhodes JM. Unifying hypothesis for inflammatory bowel disease and associated colon cancer: sticking the pieces together with sugar. Lancet 1996; 347: 40.
- (21) Salvatore S. A pilot study of N-acetyl glucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Dec;14(12):1567-79.
- (22) Bak YK. Effects of dietary supplementation of glucosamine sulfate on intestinal inflammation in a mouse model of experimental colitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 May;29(5):957-63.
- (23) Yomogida S. Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide, suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Int J Mol Med. 2008 Sep;22(3):317-23.
- (24) Kantor ED. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jun;24(6):1137-46
- (25) Masuda S. Anti-tumor properties of orally administered glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine oligomers in a mouse model. Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Oct 13;111:783-7.
- (26) Jung CW. Anti-cancer properties of glucosamine-hydrochloride in YD-8 human oral cancer cells: Induction of the caspase-dependent apoptosis and down-regulation of HIF-1α. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012 Feb;26(1):42-50.
- (27) Brasky TM. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin and lung cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Sep;22(9):1333-42.
- (1) Uitterlinden EJ. Glucosamine reduces anabolic as well as catabolic processes in bovine chondrocytes cultured in alginate. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Nov;15(11):1267-74.
- (2) Uitterlinden EJ. Glucosamine decreases expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human osteoarthritic cartilage explants. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Mar;14(3):250-7.
- (3) Shikhman A R. Chondroprotective activity of N-acetylglucosamine in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:89-94
- (4) GREVENSTEIN J. Cartilage changes in rats induced by papain and the influence of treatment with N-acetylglucosamine. Acta orthopaedica belgica 1991, vol. 57, no2, pp. 157-161
- (5) Talent JM. Pilot study of oral polymeric N-acetyl-D-glucosamine as a potential treatment for patients with osteoarthritis. Clin Ther. 1996 Nov-Dec;18(6):1184-90.
- (6) Tamai Y. Enhanced healing of cartilaginous injuries by N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and glucuronic acid. Carbohydrate Polymers Volume 54, Issue 2, 1 November 2003, Pages 251–262
- (7) Serpi M. Novel phosphoramidate prodrugs of N-acetyl-(D)-glucosamine with antidegenerative activity on bovine and human cartilage explants. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4629-39.
- (8) McGuigan C. Phosphate prodrugs derived from N-acetylglucosamine have enhanced chondroprotective activity in explant cultures and represent a new lead in antiosteoarthritis drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2008 Sep 25;51(18):5807-12.
- (9) Shikhman AR. N-Acetylglucosamine Prevents IL-1ß-Mediated Activation of Human Chondrocytes. The Journal of Immunology April 15, 2001 vol. 166 no. 8 5155-5160
- (10) Setnikar I. Absorption, distribution and excretion of radioactivity after a single IV or oral administration of [14C] to the rat. Pharmatherapeutica (1984)3: 538-550
- (11) Shoji A. Metabolic Disposition of [14C] N-Acetylglucosamine in Rats. Chitin and Chitosan Research (1999) 5 (1) : 43 - 42.
- (12) Kyoung-Youl L. Subchronic toxicity study of dietary N-acetylglucosamine in F344 rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 42, Issue 4, April 2004, Pages 687–695
- (13) Miwa T. Lack of chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity of dietary N-acetylglucosamine in F344 rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 47, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 462–471
- (14) Chen JK. N-Acetylglucosamine: Production and Applications. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(9), 2493-2516
- (15) Salvatore S. A pilot study of N-acetyl glucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Volume 14, Issue 12, pages 1567–1579, December 2000
- (16) Sayo T. Synergistic Effect of N-Acetylglucosamine and Retinoids on Hyaluronan Production in Huma
- (17) Tu CX. Exogenous N-acetylglucosamine increases hyaluronan production in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. ARCHIVES OF DERMATOLOGICAL RESEARCH Volume 301, Number 7 (2009), 549-551.n Keratinocytes. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:77–83
- (18) CHEN RH. Effect of Different Concentrations of Collagen, Ceramides, N-acetyl glucosamine, or Their Mixture on Enhancing the Proliferation of Keratinocytes, Fibroblasts and the Secretion of Collagen and/or the Expression of mRNA of Type I Collagen. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2008, Pages 66-74
- (19) KIKUCHI K. Oral N-acetylglucosamine supplementation improves skin conditions of female volunteers: Clinical evaluation by a microscopic three-dimensional skin surface analyzer Journal of applied cosmetology 2002, vol. 20, no2, pp. 143-152
- (20) Reyes E. Developments in photoaging: review of N-acetylglucosamine. Piel. 2011 (in press)
- (21) Mammone T. The effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine on stratum corneum desquamation and water content in human skin. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. Volume 32, Issue 3, page 234, June 2010.
- (22) Hwang YP. N-Acetylglucosamine suppress collagenases activation in ultraviolet B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts: Involvement of calcium ions and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Journal of Dermatological Science Volume 63, Issue 2, August 2011, Pages 93–103.
- (23) Mkhikian H. Genetics and the environment converge to dysregulate N-glycosylation in multiple sclerosis. Nature Communications 2011. 2, Article number: 334
Certificates and studies
- Glucosamine and vitamin C for joint health ?
- Glucosamine for brain health?
- Glucosamine for memory ?
- Glucosamine's anti-cancer action?
- Glucosamine for longer life?
- Chinese Glucosamine
- Glucosamine to protect the joints of athletes?
- Glucosamine against osteoarthritis in the hand?
- The effect of chondroitin-glucosamine on osteoarthritis markers
- Chondroitin and glucosamine to restore cartilage?
- Glucosamine improves vascular endothelial function
- Glucosamine + chondroitin against osteoarthritis?
- Quelle glucosamine est-elle plus efficace pour la réparation ?
- Glucosamine and chondroitin against inflammation?
- Glucosamine and chondroitin against osteoarthritis of the knee
- effects of glucosamine on the cartilage of athletes?
- more deep wrinkles = more cardiovascular mortality?
- effects of glucosamine against osteoarthritis of the hand effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin?
- collagen+ glucosamine+ carnitine for the skin?
- n-acetylglucosamine against muscle diseases more muscle with nag?
- effectiveness of joint supplements against pain?
- glucosamine: what is the optimal dosage?
- new anti-tumour properties of nag?
- does glucosamine promote cartilage repair?
- anti-cancer action of glucosamine?
- glucosamine against knee pain
- anti-cancer efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin?
- are irradiated foods good for your health?
- the many health applications of nag
- glucosamine + chondroitin: effective against pain
- the use of food supplements is beneficial to health
- how glucosamine + chondroitin improve health
- effective glucosamine + chondroitin synergy glucosamine + chondroitin help repair ligaments
- how does glucosamine increase life expectancy?
- glucosamine + chondroitin preserve joints
- glucosamine could help smokers
- glucosamine, chondroitin and fiber protect our cells
- chondroitin + glucosamine more effective together
- glucosamine + chondroitin against cancer
- glucosamine fights against inflammatory processes
- glucosamine helps to 'clean' the joints
- daily variations in the thickness of knee cartilage
- glucosamine, chondroitin, omega 3 are anti-inflammatory
- beware of under-dosed generic glucosamines