Unfortunately this index is too often hidden by retailers who buy at low prices and mislead the consumer with omega 3s that no longer have their beneficial effects because they are already too oxidised. In fact, the higher this index is, the less expensive the omega 3 is for the producers. On the contrary, the lower the index is (below 10) the more expensive their omega 3 is.
Omega 3 essential fatty acids are lipids mainly derived from fish oils. Cod liver oil is probably the best known source of omega 3. Oily fish (salmon, mackerel, tuna...) are the richest in omega 3. The active omega 3s are EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). As they cannot be synthesised by the body, we have to include them in our diet.
The minimum RDAs are 250 mg of EPA and 250 mg of DHA.
The best natural anti-fat components Omega 3 reduces your appetite, is thermogenic, inhibits fat growth, and is essential to a low-calorie diet. Cardiovascular health Omega 3s help to keep your heart rate regular. Cardiac arrhythmia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Together, they lower the heart rate and blood pressure and improve the fluidity of blood circulation (10). Anabolic and anti-catabolic effects Omega 3 had no effect on the rhythm of basic muscular anabolism. On the other hand, it doubled the anabolic reaction when amino acids and insulin are present in the blood. Consuming omega 3 also helps to reduce the impact as well as the harmful effects of aches and pains by activating recovery and regeneration. For further details on the benefits of Omega 3, visit the Find out more section.
Nutrimuscle omega 3 is best taken with meals. Spreading out your doses of omega 3 throughout the day is better for the digestive system and also allows you to take maximum advantage of certain benefits (cardiovascular in particular).
Synergies between supplements Omega 3 stimulates the proliferation of good intestinal bacteria while inhibiting the spread of pathogenic ones. There is thus a synergy between Nutrimuscle omega 3 and probiotics, which are a source of good intestinal bacteria. Adverse reactions between supplements
(1) Lawson LD. Absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oil triacylglycerols or fish oil ethyl esters co-ingested with a high-fat meal. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Oct 31;156(2):960-3.
It is rare for consumers to have access to the names of the suppliers of the raw materials used to make the supplements they consume. However, this is essential to ensuring the traceability of the products we buy. At Nutrimuscle, we only use the very best omega 3, the quality of which has been guaranteed for more than 150 years by Norwegian global leader EPAX, which is HACCP and ISO14001 certified. Their omega 3s have been tested in over a hundred scientific studies. Their exceptional quality is therefore well established, and has been so for a long time.
The price of omega 3 supplements varies greatly for the same dosage. While some of these variations can be explained by a sometimes excessive margin, there are other reasons for these cost differences.
To obtain fish oil from the fish itself, the fatty acids that contain omega 3 must be extracted by removing the protein and water. There are several ways of doing this:
The fish is cooked at a high temperature and then pressed. This inexpensive process is excellent for the production of fishmeal, but it damages a certain amount the omega 3. In this case, the oil is impaired but cheap;
Cold extraction, like that of olive oil. Unfortunately, for fish oil, this method is much less efficient than it is for olive oil;
Extraction at a low temperature (below 100°C). The advantage is twofold: it does not heat the omega 3 enough to induce degradation (which occurs at around 200°), but still allows the elimination of microbes.
Nutrimuscle's choice? Nutrimuscle omega 3s are extracted at low temperatures despite the higher cost.
Ethyl ether or triglycerides?
There are two categories of omega-3 supplements: those formulated with an ethyl ester and those formulated as triglycerides.
Naturally, omega-3s are triglycerides, meaning that three omega-3 molecules are coupled with one glycerol molecule. But in order to concentrate the polyunsaturated fatty acids, producers eliminate the glycerol molecules. They replace them with ethyl esters in order to displace other forms of lipids. After this concentration phase, it is possible to either leave the omega 3 (there is then no extra cost) or remove the ethyl esters and put the glycerol back in to obtain omega 3 in the form of triglycerides. This additional phase does of course come at a cost.
The big advantage of omega-3 ethyl esters is that they cost half as much to produce as omega-3 triglycerides, since the re-esterification phase is avoided . On the other hand, omega-3 ethyl esters have three major disadvantages:
The overall safety of this semi-synthetic form of omega 3 remains unclear. This explains why it is banned in some countries;
They are less effective due to poor absorption. Short-term studies show that the assimilation of omega 3 ethyl esters is 50% lower than that of omega 3 triglycerides (1-2). Medium-term studies show that compared to omega 3 from fish, the absorption of ester-based supplements is 27 % lower, and that of triglycerides is 24 % higher (3). The 50% superiority of triglycerides therefore last over time. In the long term, studies show that human cell incorporation saturates faster and at a lower level with ethyl esters than with triglycerides (4);
The preservation of the integrity of omega 3 is less than it is with triglycerides. Ethyl esters make polyunsaturated fatty acids very vulnerable to oxidation (destruction by oxygen).
We'll conclude with a simple question that sums up the situation: why do the vast majority of retailers who sell omega 3 in the form of ethyl esters try to conceal it by not indicating the semi-synthetic form of their product anywhere?
Nutrimuscle's choice : Nutrimuscle omega 3s are kept in their natural form, meaning they are bound to triglycerides and do not come in the form of ethyl esters, even though this choice increases the price of the supplement.
Are triglyceride omega 3s more effective than ethyl ester omega 3s?
A new study compares the long-term efficacy of omega-3 ethyl esters and omega-3 in the form of triglycerides. Once again, it is scientifically proven that omega-3 ethyl esters are less effective than triglycerides.
But this study goes beyond a simple comparison, as it analyses the different responses to omega-3 supplementation in a large sample of subjects. In 10 weeks, with an intake of about 2 g per day, the concentration of omega 3 in the red blood cells increases from 4.9% to 8.1%. These data also show that consistent supplementation increases the level of omega 3 for 13 to 14 weeks. Then the increase stops Supplementation simply keeps the rates high.
So, what factors optimise the effectiveness of omega 3? The first differentiating factor was the best results in the group using omega 3 in the form of triglycerides compared to those taking omega 3 ethyl esters. But there is also, most importantly, the key role of dosage.
The big problem with fish oils is that they are the receptacle for all the pollutants that man has been dumping into the sea for decades (heavy metals, chemicals, persistent organic pollutants, etc.). These substances thus have to be removed through decontamination procedures. In general, decontamination takes place during the refining process. Almost all producers do it well, so some brands are regularly caught for having a higher contamination rate than the standard. What many do not do, however, is carry out a second round of decontamination to reinforce the first, in order to bring the level of pollutants to a near-zero level. Why? Simply because the filtration process is costly.
Nutrimuscle's choice? Nutrimuscle omega 3s are subject to this double decontamination process, meaning we have reached the lowest impurity levels on the market, with test results published on a regular basis. This enables us to provide true purity measurements. As these are the purest oils possible, you can safely use them on a regular basis.
What is the concentration?
In their natural state, the oiliest fish contain a maximum of 30% omega 3. It is therefore necessary to concentrate the fatty acids by eliminating lipids that have no health benefits. It is possible to achieve a concentration of 90%, but the cost rises exponentially above 50%.
Nutrimuscle's choice? Each Nutrimuscle omega 3 capsule contains approximately 57% EPA + DHA to provide a high-concentration supplement at an affordable price.
How much exactly?
There is a way to artificially inflate the advertised percentages. Omega 3 is combined with an ester or glycerol. These molecules are not omega 3s, but often they are counted as such, which distorts dosages and is misleading to the consumer.
Nutrimuscle states the net concentrations of its omega 3s (i.e. without including glycerol). This choice lowers the concentrations of Nutrimuscle omega 3 in relation to the competition, but accurately reflects the EPA and DHA content of the product.
If this detail is not mentioned, it is because the glycerol or esters are counted as omega 3 (which they are not) in order to artificially improve their content, but this may be misleading to the consumer.
Each Nutrimuscle Omega 3 capsule contains a minimum of 380 mg EPA + 190 mg DHA.
What about traceability?
In terms of traceability, before you buy, it's important to get a clear answer to the following questions: Where was the fish caught? What kind of fish is it? Are these fish wild or farmed? Where was the extraction done? Where were the capsules assembled? Most of the time, the answers to these questions remain very unclear.
Nutrimuscle's choice? We're an open book!
The fish are caught off the coast of Peru because the sea there is less polluted than in Europe.
These are wild fish (anchovies and tuna) rather than farmed fish.
Extraction is done directly on the fishing boat to reduce costs and guarantee freshness.
The capsules are assembled in Germany (not in China, as is increasingly common).
What is the use-by date?
A classic way to cut costs is to purchase a raw material that will soon be out-of-date. This strategy is unfortunately commonplace. This explains why you sometimes find yourself with product that is about to expire when you've only just bought it. Therefore, we should require manufacturers to clearly indicate the use-by date on their products.
Nutrimuscle's choice? Be it for omega 3s, proteins, or something else... Nutrimuscle sources the freshest possible produce. This means that we're not interested in discounts on batches that are close to the expiration date.
Some omega 3 supplements contain mostly EPA, while others are mostly DHA. EPA and DHA each have their own unique benefits. This search for balance explains why several varieties of fish are used, not just one. Fish such as anchovies are very rich in EPA, whereas tuna mainly provides DHA. The types of fish used will therefore determine the EPA/HAD ratio.
Nutrimuscle's choice? Nutrimuscle omega 3s respect the EPA/DHA balance in order to combat supply inequalities.
Deodorisation: For or against?
Fish oil has a strong fishy smell. It is possible to eliminate the taste through a deodorisation process. This is an extra step that increases the cost of omega 3, but of course it is more pleasant for the consumer. Deodorisation thus seems like a logical step. Unfortunately, however, this is not a good idea, as it is done by heating the fish oil to 210°C. Above 200°C, the heat damages the fatty acids. Some of the benefits of omega 3 therefore evaporate along with the smell. The advantage of top-of-the-range omega 3 is that, due to the quality of the refining process, the product is very pure. Naturally, its taste is minimal, if not non-existent.
Moreover, what gives most of the fishy aftertaste is the deterioration of the omega 3. If your omega 3s have been deodorized and still taste bad, this means that a lot of the fatty acids have been damaged by oxidation.
Nutrimuscle's choice? Nutrimuscle omega 3s have not been deodorised. The quality of the product explains why they have almost no smell or aftertaste.
How are they protected against oxygen?
Apart from heat, oxygen is the biggest enemy of omega 3s. Polyunsaturated fatty acids oxidise (break down) quickly when they come into contact with it. They must therefore be protected in two different ways: with vacuum extraction and by adding antioxidants such as vitamin E. If this vitamin is not mentioned in the composition, it means the omega 3s are not protected and are at risk of oxidation.
Nutrimuscle's choice?: Nutrimuscle omega 3s are produced with this double protection.
Throughout the manufacturing process, constant testing is carried out to ensure the reliability of the system. The antioxidants (natural tocopherols; vitamin E in the list of ingredients of Nutrimuscle's omega 3) also reflect this search for perfect protection against oxidation.
TOTOX quality indicator
Beyond the quantitative aspect (dosage), how can the quality of the various omega 3s be differentiated?
There is a quality index imposed on omega-3 manufacturers by the GOED (Global Organization for EPA and DHA omega-3s), which groups together the main fish oil manufacturers (5). The main quality index for omega 3 is called TOTOX (TOTal OXidation). It measures the total oxidation of omega 3s, i.e. their degradation. The higher the TOTOX index, the poorer the quality of your omega-3s. The maximum TOTOX level is set at 26.
A high TOTOX score also means that the actual dose of omega-3 is far from the theoretical dosage stated on the label, because a large proportion of the omega-3 will have been oxidised (destroyed), giving rise to toxic substances. These toxic oxidized molecules therefore replace the healthy omega 3 molecules.
The TOTOX index of Nutrimuscle's omega 3 is 2 for the batch currently on sale, well below the maximum limit of 26.
All sellers of omega 3 should notify consumers of this index. Unfortunately, this is generally not the case...
If the TOTOX index is not clearly stated, we can assume that the quality is probably poor. Independent studies conducted in various countries show that 11-62% of the omega 3 in supplements is oxidised (giving a very bad TOTOX index).
Why not use plant-based omega 3?
Plant-based omega 3s do exist. Some plants, such as flax, are rich in alpha linolenic acid (ALA, an omega 3). Unfortunately, our bodies have difficulty converting ALA to EPA and DHA. The average conversion of ALA to EPA is 10-20%, and to DHA it is 0.5-9%. This explains why the blood EPA level is 15-23% lower in vegetarians. The problem is even worse among men, whose conversion level is 2.5 times lower than that of women. Fish omega 3s contain EPA and DHA, which bypasses the task of converting ALA to EPA and DHA.
Nutrimuscle's choice? Efficiency is key. No plant-derived omega 3!
Why take supplements rather than eating fish?
Oils provide an ideal reservoir for pollutants.
Farmed fish are becoming less and less rich in omega 3.
There is a risk of destroying some of the omega 3 during the cooking process.
You would have to eat a lot of it every day to cover your minimum needs.
The absorption of fish oil is 24% lower than that of omega-3 supplements in the form of triglycerides (3).
An omega 3 supplement is therefore easier to use without having the disadvantages of fish (pollutants).
Saturated fatty acids: these are the fats that solidify in the cold. We speak of “bad fats”.
Monounsaturated fatty acids: their main representative is olive oil.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids: these include omega 6 (borage or evening primrose oil) and omega 3 (fish oils). These are the good fats.
This third group of fatty acids is essential for health. However, our body does not know how to manufacture them. This is the reason why they are qualified by the term: "essential". Their importance is explained by the fact that lipids make up the protective membrane of all our cells. The lipid structure of our membranes faithfully reflects the profile of the dietary fat that we absorb.
Omega 3 and fatty acids Thanks to essential fatty acids, our cells are vigorous and efficient. On the other hand, a diet too rich in bad fats weakens our cells, promoting the appearance of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes ...
Historically, the man who once ate a lot of fish gradually replaced it with meat (low in omega 3). Our omega 3 intake has therefore collapsed. Medical analyzes (SU.VI.MAX study) show that 95% of French people only cover a little more than half of their needs in alpha linolenic acid (omega 3) (1). The chances of suffering from omega 3 deficiency increase the more you reduce your fat intake, especially during a diet.
By analyzing the profile of plasma fatty acids in high-level French athletes, numerous lipid disturbances were detected. It is mainly a lack of omega 3 Thus, 80% of international swimmers studied showed deficits in essential fatty acids (2). Confirmation of this same imbalance in rugby players or footballers (3-4). Their intake of saturated fatty acids is too high while their consumption of essential fatty acids remains too low.
Considerable health benefits Omega 3:
Promote cardiovascular functions;
Reinforce the framework;
Protect nerve cells by preventing neuroinflammation;
Help fight against depression (significant omega 3 deficiencies are frequently found in depressed patients);
Serves as a raw material for the structure of the cell membranes of the eye.
Best natural anti-fat Compared to normal, omega 3 needs are increased during a low calorie diet, because our body uses them preferentially. Supplementation with essential fatty acids therefore becomes essential. Omega 3s will give you the following benefits:
Reduced appetite: Omega 3s increase the secretion of appetite suppressant hormones like leptin. In 4 weeks, taking omega 3 (6 g instead of 1 g per day) in men increases the secretion of leptin by 10%. When we eat, sensors placed in the digestive system assess the intake of essential fatty acids. If our food lacks omega 3, the brain pushes us to eat more in order to increase the chances of obtaining them.
Omega 3s are thermogenic. Calorie waste in the form of heat is 15% more important following the ingestion of omega 3 than saturated fat.
Omega 3 inhibits fat growth. By a phenomenon of competition in fat cells, omega 3 replace saturated fat which promotes the expansion of adipose tissue.
DHA is the most active omega 3 against pounds. The anti-kilos benefits of omega 3 are concretely illustrated by the following scientific study. For 4 weeks, overweight men followed a low calorie diet providing 1600 calories per day:
A group consuming neither omega 3 nor fish lost 3.5 kg;
A second group consumed low-fat fish (150 g of herring providing 300 mg of omega 3 per day). He lost 4.3 kg;
A third group ate fatty fish (150 g of salmon providing 3 g of omega 3 per day). He lost 4.5 kg;
A final group received omega 3 supplementation (providing 1.5 g of omega 3 per day), but no fish. He lost 5 kg.
Fat elimination under omega 3 occurs proportionally more around the waist than on the rest of the body.
Reduced muscle catabolism
Regular use of omega 3 helps limit the damage caused by cytokines (immune factors produced by muscles during intense contractions). These cytokines are the cause of muscle stiffness, which explains why omega 3s reduce the incidence of muscle stiffness and promote recovery.
When we start or resume weight training, only muscle aches are there to reward us for our efforts. These pains are induced by an intense catabolism of muscle proteins. In addition to hampering recovery, they are not pleasant. For the athlete, aches do not bring anything good since they force to space the training sessions.
A new medical study shows that taking omega 3 reduces the impact as well as the harmful effects of muscle aches. Young men who had not practiced bodybuilding for at least 2 months served as guinea pigs. Some received omega 3 (1.8 g per day), others a placebo (15). Twenty-four and forty-eight hours after a traumatic weight training session, muscle catabolism was attenuated by omega 3s compared to placebo. The elevation of the vectors of muscle catabolism and inflammation (IL-6, TNF and PGE2) was also inhibited by omega 3s.
A second study shows that the daily intake of 1.3 g of omega 3 for 6 weeks improves the body's antioxidant defenses after physical exertion (16). Conclusion: fish fats allow faster recovery and reduce the negative impact of weight training on health.
Anabolic action The anabolic action of omega 3s has long been known in animals (5-6). Marine fatty acids are widely used in the food industry to build muscle as quickly as possible in animals such as cattle or pigs. New research confirms this anabolic action in humans. For 8 weeks, senior men and women received 1.86 g of EPA + 1.5 g of DHA daily. The level of muscle protein synthesis was measured before and then after the 8 weeks (7).
Omega 3s have no effect on the rate of basal muscle anabolism. On the other hand, they double the anabolic reaction when amino acids and insulin are present in the blood. The anabolic stimulation of omega 3 takes place at the level of the most limiting factor in protein synthesis, that is to say by activating an enzyme called mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin, or target of rapamycin in mammals). It is mTOR that regulates cell proliferation and therefore indirectly the size of our muscles: the greater the activity of mTOR, the faster the hypertrophy. This stimulating effect of omega 3 better explains the muscle gain that is noticed after supplementation.
In novice bodybuilders, taking 4g of omega 3 daily allowed them to gain 1.4kg of lean muscle in 28 days (8). As for the gain in strength, it is twice as important with omega 3 than with a placebo (8). Omega 3s are particularly interesting for beginners, since their use makes it possible to accelerate the disappearance of muscle aches, that is to say to activate recovery and regeneration. Before thigh strength training, young men were given either a placebo or 324 mg of EPA + 216 mg of DHA daily (9). Twenty-four hours after training, the level of muscle soreness is the same in both groups. Forty-eight hours after training, the level of muscle stiffness almost returned to normal in the omega 3 group while it hardly decreased in the placebo group.
The long-term effect of omega 3s on anabolism has been evaluated in healthy men and women, aged 25 to 45 years. For 8 weeks, these people received 1860 mg of EPA + 1500 mg of DHA daily (17). Omega 3s did not produce any alteration in baseline anabolism. On the other hand, it was observed that these essential fatty acids increased the level of protein synthesis by 33% when the muscles received amino acids and insulin, that is to say at the time of food intake. Ultimately, this anabolic rise explains why subjects under omega 3 gained muscle, even if they did not practice weight training. This is an increase in the size of fibers (hypertrophy) rather than an increase in the number of muscle fibers (hyperplasia) as occurs with creatine. These two food supplements will therefore help the athlete through different, but complementary means.
Cardiovascular health In the long term, regular use of omega 3 is associated with a decrease in mortality from cardiovascular events (10). Several mechanisms of action explain the benefits induced by omega 3. They help the heart to beat more regularly (indeed, cardiac arrhythmia is one of the main causes of death in the world (11)), lower together the heart rate and blood pressure (12), improve the fluidity of the blood circulation (10), reduce by 10 to 33% the level of blood triglycerides, fats that stick to the walls of the vessels and end up blocking them ( 12). In order to benefit from these protective effects, doctors recommend a total daily intake of 900 mg of EPA + DHA (13).
These many benefits are obviously found in athletes. The advantage of omega 3 is that by facilitating heart function, they reduce the stress on the heart caused by repeated training. Thus, in high-level athletes, daily intake of 6 g of omega 3 for 5 weeks reduces heart rate by 7.8% during intense effort compared to 1.9% with a placebo (14). Thanks to this reduction, it is all the easier to delay heart fatigue and therefore the drop in performance.
Towards a new model? The medical recommendations to optimize heart health were until then to use a supplementation of 250 mg of omega 3 per day in addition to the intake from the consumption of fish estimated at 500 mg per week. In fact, at least in the United States, more than 90% of the population does not even reach this minimum. However, it is precisely this old model that is called into question today by several studies (1-2).
Indeed, the predictive model of the first study estimates that this dosage will increase the level of omega 3 only up to 6% while the real health benefit requires reaching 8%. On average, to reach this threshold of 8%, it takes 1750 mg of omega 3 in the form of triglycerides or 2500 mg of omega 3 ethyl esters. The difference is explained by the lower effectiveness of the latter.
Concrete actions of omega 3 on health There are more and more studies that question the health action of omega 3s, in particular on the heart (3). On the other hand, its beneficial effect on longevity no longer seems to be called into question (4). These are meta-analyzes, therefore studies which themselves bring together a number of studies in order to maximize the number of people analyzed. The objective is to observe the action of omega 3 on an ever increasing number of users. In fact, the more subjects there are, the more we reduce the margin of error on the conclusion of the effects.
The latest meta-analyzes have more impact than the old ones, simply because they have more users and over a longer period of use. The very latest meta-analysis has 64% more people than the previous ones, because it takes into account new studies done on a very large scale and whose results we were all waiting for, because they would be decisive (2).
Another crucial factor is the arrival of large studies with dosages much higher than before, amounting to 4 g per day. This is to be compared with the oldest studies which often provided, daily, between 376 and 850 mg of omega 3.
This new meta-analysis concludes that "marine omega 3 supplementation significantly reduced the risk of myocardial infarction, total coronary heart disease, total cardiovascular heart disease". While the lower dosages can be effective, it is the advent of studies with much higher dosages that show that total daily intake is a very important factor. If so many studies show no effect of omega 3, it is because of far too modest dosages.
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(2) Beckermann B. [Comparative bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid and docasahexaenoic acid from triglycerides, free fatty acids and ethyl esters in volunteers] Arzneimittelforschung. 1990 Jun;40(6):700-4.
(3) Dyerberg J. Bioavailability of marine n-3 fatty acid formulations. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2010 Sep;83(3):137-41.
(4) Neubronner J. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov 10. [Epub ahead of print]
(6) Martín D. Oxidative stabilization of ultra-high omega-3 concentrates as ethyl esters or triacylglycerols. Food Research International 2012 Volume 45, Issue 1, January, Pages 336–341
(1) Astorg P, et al. Dietary intakes and food sources of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in French adult men and women. Lipids. 2004 Jun;39(6):527-35.
(2) CHOS D. Biologie nutritionnelle et complémentation du sportif de haut niveau : Résultat du Profil des Acides gras Plasmatiques chez 3 équipes (Football, Rugby, Natation). Médecine du sport. 2001, no MAI, pp. 52-56
(3) FINAUD J. Résultats d'une enquête alimentaire réalisée chez des joueurs de rugby français de haut niveau. Cahiers de nutrition et de diététique 2003, vol. 38, no4, pp. 234-241.
(4) Ollier F. Apports alimentaires et dépenses énergétiques d\'adolescents footballeurs de haut niveau: comparaison de deux méthodes d\'évaluation des apports. Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique. 2006 41 (1), February, Pages 23-31.
(5) Jackson MJ. Effects of dietary-fish-oil feeding on muscle growth and damage in the rat. Br J Nutr. 1988 Sep;60(2):217-24.
(6) Gingras AA. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids regulate bovine whole-body protein metabolism by promoting muscle insulin signalling to the Akt-mTOR-S6K1 pathway and insulin sensitivity. J Physiol. 2007 Feb 15;579(Pt 1):269-84.
(7) Gordon SI. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2011 vol. 93 no. 2 402-412
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(9) The Effects of Ingestion of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Perceived Pain and External Tartibian B. Symptoms of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Untrained Men Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2009 - Volume 19 - Issue 2 - pp 115-119.
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(14) Buckley JD. DHA-rich fish oil lowers heart rate during submaximal exercise in elite Australian Rules footballers. J Sci Med Sport. 2009 Jul;12(4):503-7.
(15) Tartibian B. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Attenuates Inflammatory Markers After Eccentric Exercise in Untrained Men. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2011 21(2) p: 131-137
(16) Poprzecki S. Modification of blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in response to high-intensity endurance exercise after low doses of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in healthy volunteers. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 2:67-79.
(17) Smith GI. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperaminoacidemia-hyperinsulinemia in healthy young and middle aged men and women. Clin Sci (Lond). 2011 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]
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